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How did we develop the COVID-19 vaccines so efficiently?

1. Health Canada. COVID-19 Vaccines: Authorized Vaccines. September 16, 2021.

2. HIV-Vaccine trial that took 18 months to meet the target recruitment of 5,000 people and another 18 months to have enough HIV infections to run a statistical analysis. From The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Trial of a Recombinant Glycoprotein 120 Vaccine to Prevent HIV-1 Infection. March 1, 2005.

3. HPV vaccination trial that took 13 months to recruit 5,000 volunteers but had to wait three years until enough infections had occurred that they could analyze the results. From The New England Journal of Medicine. Quadrivalent Vaccine against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Anogenital Diseases. May 10, 2007.

4. World Health Organization. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. Accessed September 2021.

5. US National Library of Medicine. COVID-19 Studies from the World Health Organization Database. Accessed September 2021.

6. Nature. The lightning-fast quest for COVID vaccines — and what it means for other diseases. December 18, 2020.

7. Canadian Institutes of Health. The long road to mRNA vaccines. July 30, 2021.

8. National Institute on Aging. What Are Clinical Trials and Studies? April 9, 2020.

9. SciBeh COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Handbook & Wiki. The COVID-19 Vaccine Development Process. Accessed September 19, 2021.

10. World Health Organization, Europe. Vaccine safety and false contraindications to vaccine: Training Manual. Accessed September 2021.

11. Government of Canada. Vaccines and treatments for COVID-19: Safety after authorization. April 15, 2021.

12. ArcGIS. COVID-19 Dashboard. Accessed September 2021.

13. Government of Canada. Reported side effects following COVID-19 vaccination in Canada. Accessed September 2021.

Assessing Risks and Benefits – How Can I Make Informed Choices About Vaccination?

1. Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University – COVID-19 Dashboard. 

2. Government of Ontario. All Ontario: Case numbers and spread. September 19, 2021.

3. The Lancet: Respiratory Medicine. Comparison of the characteristics, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza: a nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study. December 17, 2020.

4. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics. July 3, 2020.

5. Government of Ontario. COVID-19 vaccinations data. September 19, 2021.

6. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Post–COVID-19 chronic symptoms: A postinfectious entity? July 28, 2020.

7. Heart Rhythm. COVID-19 cardiac injury: Implications for long-term surveillance and outcomes in survivors. June 26, 2020.

8. Science Table. Understanding the Post COVID-19 Condition (Long COVID) and the Expected Burden for Ontario. September 14, 2021.

9. HackMD. The COVID-19 Vaccine Development Process. Accessed September 19, 2021.

10. Government of Canada. COVID-19 vaccination in Canada. September 17, 2021.

11. Government of Canada. Reported side effects following COVID-19 vaccination in Canada. September 17, 2021.

12. Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Long-term Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccine? What We Know. February 4, 2021.

13. World Health Organization – Europe. Vaccine Safety and False Contraindications to Vaccination: Training Manual. 2017.